Before we get into the details about incontinence after prostatectomy, we must discuss Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) and how we have modified our diagnostic process and, ultimately, treatment of prostate cancer over the years. You may have read elsewhere on our website that we once used to aggressively treat prostate cancer at the first signs of PSA rising above 4. As we have learned over the years, prostate cancer is often very slow-growing, and a single high PSA reading does not necessarily warrant a biopsy or treatment. Similarly, the presence of prostate cancer with a biopsy does not necessarily mean an immediate prostatectomy. The restraint we have shown with this newer knowledge of prostate cancer has reduced the number of prostatectomies we’ve had to perform and ultimately helped some patients avoid the consequences of such surgery, including incontinence and erectile dysfunction.